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    Adriana P pss c solidi status physica Phys. These analyses showed that the SBA ce- value of In the meantime, the functionalized ethyl- of the amino and sulfur group into the well-ordered hex- enediamine SBA presented a narrow pore-size distri- agonal mesoporous structure of SBA ceramic materials. KGaA, Weinheim 1 Introduction Over the past few years, a family of importance in the pore engineering for their applications in mesoporous materials with high specific surface area and the industry, engineering, environmental waste and bio- functionalized surface have received much interest and a medical areas [7—10]. It has a narrow pore-size distribution of 20— bone-tissue engineering [1—6]. KGaA, Weinheim pss c solidi physica status 2 Z. Vargas-Osorio et al. Upon surfactant removal, the materials present a rial was carried out in a typical synthesis of: 8 g of triblock network of cavities within the silica framework that deter- copolymer Pluronic P, PEOPPOPEO20, as a mines their physicochemical properties. However, the structure-directing agent were dissolved in a mixture of presence of remaining surfactant trapped within the pore mL of deionized water and Once the surfactant was completely dis- templates from these mesoporous materials, i. After aging at K for 24 h in a functionalized, only chemical removal by solvent washing sealed crystal recipient, gels were collected by filtration, could be used [11, 17, 34]. Finally, dried powders were treated with new organic generate favorable changes on the surface properties of the solvent method to remove the surfactant.

    It is formed by laminar particles and flexible pores with slit morphology [44]. The evaluation of the adsorption and desorption branches of the isotherms and the hysteresis between them using the BJH method [38], reveals information about the SBA mesoporous samples like size, volume, and sur- face area. The results are shown in Table 6. Table 6 Textural values of mesoporous matrices.

    SBA-N3E As expected for R1 and R2 functionalized From the adjacent mesoporous matrix the thickness of the SBA samples, the BET surface area, the BJH pore sizes siliceous wall twall can be deduced by subtracting the and pore volumes of the materials decrease gradually with value of pore diameter DBJH from the value of the lattice the increase of R1 and R2 content as an effect of the occu- parameter, a0 , obtained by XRD [38, 44].

    The pore di- pation of large organic groups in the pore channels, while ameter distribution of the mesoporous matrices is pre- the wall thickness of the materials increases with R1 and sented in Fig. R2 content [15]. When the pore diameter DBJH appears to be smaller than 2. The synthesized materials have asymmetric pore systems of various morphologies and sizes, therefore the obtained diameters are far from the real value attributed to a poor assembly of the mesostructures at high amino and high sulfur groups.

    Pore contraction could be attributed to an increased amount of the incorporated organic functional group within Figure 6 Pore-size distribution of the mesoporous matrices. Status Solidi C 7 For instance, SBA material exhibited characteristics ous particles reported in the literature can be observed and values of surface area of Figure 7a, shows long filaments that represent the capillaries with open hexagonal shape at both ends, characteristic of this type of mesoporous matri- ces.

    However, when the percentage of functionalization in- creases, the distortion in the size and morphology of the filaments becomes evident, as shown in the case of SBA- S2E sample with a not well-defined structure Fig.

    This material possesses a H4-type hystere- sis cycle, which tends to form pores by stacking between sheets.

    The presence and configuration of the porous systems of these materials could be seen conveniently using trans- mission electron microscopy to describe the ordered and disordered systems, respectively. In Fig. In the TEM image in Fig. KGaA, Weinheim pss c solidi physica status 8 Z. All the images show the longitudinal arrangement of mesopores characteristics of SAB mate- rials. Figures 9d—f show semi-ordered pore structures with increased pore wall thickness with respect to Figs.

    Figure 9g corresponds to the sample with the highest concentration of tetrasulfide groups does not present any indication of contrast due to the pore structure as corre- sponds to a disordered and amorphous material due to the functional tetrasulfide groups are practically filling up the pores as well as covering the outer surface of the particles.

    The presence of tetrasulfide groups anchored by both sides of the molecule to the silica walls greatly affects the condensation of the silanol groups during the reaction.

    Moreover, a mesoporous ordered structure is maintained, which is consistent with the results obtained by BET and XRD, having surface areas lower than those shown by the SBA-NnE materials, while simultaneously presented a well-resolved Bragg diffraction maxima A high amount of silanol groups in their surface could be favor- able for their bioactivity, because it is known that the pres- ence of silanol groups on the bioglass surface contribute largely to their excellent bioactivity.

    The SBA-S3E mate- rial possesses free silanols groups and the material is prac- tically amorphous with poor textural properties due to a higher amount of the functional group.

    The experimental characterization results indicate that the main difference between ethylenediamine and tetrasul- fide functionalized mesoporous materials with respect to SBA material consisted of the increases of the lattice parameter of the SBA material due to the effect of the ethylenediamine from Tak-Hyun, J.

    Min, and J. Park, Micropor. Thielemann, F. Girgsdies, R. Hess, conventional one. A reduced order of homogeneity of the Beilstein J.

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    Wang, F. Zhang, J. Ren, Ch. Li, X. Liu, Y. Guo, and G. Lu, Mater. Ruan, T. Kjellman, Y. Sakamoto, and V. Alfredsson, These materials preserve a high concentration of silanol Langmuir 28, Margolese, J. Melero, S. Christiansen, B. Stucky, Chem. Wang, C. Jerry Chang, T. Yao-Hung, and S. Cheng, nique , which would increase their reactivity and to change Micropor.

    For the functionalized materials with a [16] M. Ojeda, J. Esparza, A. Campero, S. Cordero, I. Rojas, Phys. Bae and O. Han, Micropor. CO2 absorber as they might avoid the limitations for pure [18] L.

    Hamoudi, and K. Belkacemi, Catalysts 1 1 , 97 Finally, the surfactant [19] E. Arencibia, R. Sanz, removal method used turned out to be easy to perform, G. Calleja, and M. Maroto-Valer, Int. Gas Cont. In summary, [20] S. Parambadath, A. Mathew, M. Barnabas, and Ch. Ha, well-ordered surface functionalized mesoporous silica Micropor. SBA ceramic was readily synthesized using a novel and [21] D. Zhang and J. Li, Chin.

    Tewodros and T. Zhimin, Chem. Kim, II.

    APPSC Group 2 Full Notes for free donwload

    Slowing, P. Chung, and V. Lin, ACS groups; providing high functional behavior and could be Nano. Colilla, F. Balas, M. Manzano, and M. Zhao, J. Feng, Q. Huo, N. Melosh, G. Fredrickson, B. Chmelka, and G. Stucky, Science , Doadrio, J. Doadrio, A. Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank Omar Salinas, and M. Ren, C. Lu, ship during the course of this study. This research was financially Mater. Su, L. Cao, B. Yu, S. Song, X. Liu, Z. Wang, and M. Li, Internat. Rezabeigi, P. Wood-Adams, and R.

    Drew, Mater. References Sci. C 40, Chen, J. Shi, Y.

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    Li, J. Yan, Z. Hua, H. Hoffmann, M. Cornelius, J. Morell, and M. Chen, and D. Yan, Adv. Gu, J. Shi, G. You, L. Xiong, S. Qian, Z. Gases are poor conductors of heat. Materials which are attracted towards the magnet find uses in electronic devices.

    These are called magnetic materials. What kind of containers shopkeeper use to keep eatables? Name a common name of an object in your home made of wood. Name a group of materials that conduct heat or electricity. Water when mixed with mustard oil forms two layers. Are these miscible or immiscible? Washing soda added to water disappears.

    Is it soluble or insoluble? Is clean water transparent or opaque? A material when added to water floats over it. What do you call a material through which things are partially visible? Name a material that is attracted towards a magnet. What are the materials called which are difficult to compress?

    Thermosciences Group

    Which kind of materials have definite shape and occupy definite space? All objects are made up of only one kind of material. Different objects can be made from the same material. A looking mirror is a opaque material. Things made of copper and aluminium have lustre.

    Sorting of materials into groups is done on the basis of similarities and not differences in their properties. An oily thin paper sheet will be trasparent. Glass, water and air form a set of transparent materials. Turmeric powder used in our food is soluble in water. Materials are grouped for our convenience to study their properties. A paper is transparent but ink is not transparent. We are a group of materials that are highly compressible and are poor conductors of heat.

    I am a tiny material but in some respect behave like our earth. I am a material and can be made into tumbler but cannot hold water.

    I am an elastic material but a non-conductor of heat. I am a material that is generally used to make toys for children to play. I have mass and volume but offer negligible resistance to the movement of men or materials.

    Across 1. A property of materials through which things can be seen. A property which describes mixing of two liquids. We are the materials with lustre. We are the materials which can be compressed easily. I are hard and have a rough surface and in pieces float on water. We are a group of materials through which things are not clearly visible. T Y Vertical 2.

    A property to test hardness or softness of materials. A property of transmission of electricity. Mixing of two substances.

    A shining material to make cooking utensils. A property of all metals. A container to hold things. Collect materials in your household and make a list what is the number of materials in different groups made on the basis of transparency, colour, shape, lustre, conductivity and material of which these are made.

    Visit to your kitchen and see how your mother has kept different eatables and basis of sorting them. Are you able to suggest a better sorting. Visit your school laboratory, observe the chemicals and glass weares and see how the storekeeper has kept different chemicals and glass apparatus.

    Roll No. Teacher s sign. What is the basis of grouping? A thing can be made of different materials. Which group of materials are lustrous?

    Give two examples each of materials which have rough surface and smooth surface. Give two differences between materials made from glass and plastics. State whether a material which forms a separate layer with water, is a solid, liquid or a gas? Why do cooking utensils have handles made of wood?

    What will happen if these are made of iron or plastic?

    When chalk powder or sand is added to water, it settles down. What do you infer? How will you show that water is a transparent material? When milk or glycerine are added to water, they disappear! What does it mean? Same type of materials have different properties.

    Which type of material has no definite shape or volume? Give one example each of an opaque and a translucent material. How will you show that common salt is soluble in water? Why do you need grouping?

    Give an example. Name three materials which are good conductors of heat. All materials have mass and occupy space.

    Air is also a material. How will you prove? It is easier to hold glass cup full of hot milk than steal cup full of hot milk. Give one difference and one similarity between a solid and a liquid material. What will happen if petrol is mixed with water and stirred? What is a material? Name two objects in your household that are round or have a round shape. Name four objects from your household that are made of wood.

    Name at least two materials of which a plate thali can be made. Name at least two materials of which a writing pen can be made. Name four objects that can be made using paper as one of the materials. Out of plastic or paper which shall be suitable to make a tumbler to keep water. Why grouping of things done? Do metals always show lustre? Why some metals lose their shine and appear dull?

    When a substance is added to water, it disappears.

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